Tomatoes are naturally acidic, and foods like tomato sauce, ketchup, and salsa can contribute to acidity.
Spices like chilli, pepper, and curry can relax the lower oesophagal sphincter (LES) and lead to acid reflux.
High-fat foods, such as fried foods, butter, and fatty cuts of meat, can slow digestion and promote acid reflux.
Chocolate contains both caffeine and theobromine, which can relax the LES and increase acid production.
Soda and carbonated drinks can expand the stomach and increase pressure on the LES, causing acid reflux.
Caffeine can relax the LES and stimulate acid production, leading to heartburn.
Alcohol can relax the LES and irritate the oesophagus, making it more prone to acid reflux.
While most fruit juices are acidic, citrus juices like orange and grapefruit are particularly problematic for some individuals.
Emotional stress can sometimes exacerbate acid reflux symptoms.